nature of parks and gardens makes their character and historic
interest rather difficult to protect. Replanting, pruning and
trimming are constant activities, and gardens are in a continual
process of change, from one month to the next, and from one season
to another. Under the system designed to protect historic buildings
and monuments, scheduling a garden or landscape might prevent
change to the structure, but it would also inhibit its management
so it can only be used to protect individual features and derelict
gardens. Listing can only be applied to its built features such
as follies, walls and bridges.
of the lack of protection for historic parks and gardens was made
in 1983 when the National Heritage Act enabled non-statutory registers
to be compiled of historic gardens in England and Wales, and similar
provisions were subsequently made in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
All UK planning authorities are now encouraged to include policies
in their development plans for the protection of designed landscapes
and to protect these 'registered' historic parks and gardens.
There are also statutory procedures for consultation where development
is likely to affect a registered historic park or garden, and
the Garden History Society is consulted on all applications in
England, Scotland and Wales. However, inclusion on the registers,
which are listed below, does not bring any additional protection,
and alterations to parks and gardens generally do not require
statutory consent unless they involve development work requiring
a planning application, listed building consent, or scheduled
monument consent, or they affect a tree covered by a tree preservation
of Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England is
maintained by English Heritage and now contains almost 1,450 sites,
graded like listed buildings, with grade II denoting national
importance, II* being 'of exceptional interest' and I (accounting
for 10 per cent of entries) denoting international importance.
English Heritage is consulted on all applications affecting gardens
of grades I and II*.
of Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in Wales is
maintained by Cadw and ICOMOS and is similarly structured (again
with 10 percent at grade I). It now contains over 370 entries.
Statutory consultation procedures are being reviewed.
of Gardens & Designed Landscapes in Scotland was introduced in
1988, initially with 275 sites, and is maintained by Historic
Scotland. Limited protection was granted to these sites in 1992
under the Town & Country Planning (General Development Procedure)
(Scotland) Order (GDPO), making them a material consideration
in the planning process. Any planning proposal which would affect
an Inventory site must be referred to Scottish Ministers through
Historic Scotland and Scottish Natural Heritage. Supplementary
Extension Inventory volumes have since been prepared for some
areas of Scotland and there are now over 340 sites included, but
unfortunately the GDPO definition only covers the 275 sites which
were included in the Inventory in 1988.
Ireland the Register of Historic Parks, Gardens and Demesnes of
Special Historic Interest, which is published by the Environment
and Heritage Service, includes 154 sites. The entries are not
graded. A further 150 sites have been identified as having a high
level of interest and are included as an appendix to the main
Register as designated 'Supplementary' sites.
article is reproduced from The
Building Conservation Directory, 2006
article was prepared by Jonathan Taylor, Cathedral Communications' executive editor, with
the help of Alison Allighan of The Garden History Society
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