Materials which enable
lime mortars to set more rapidly include ash and brick dust. Known as
'pozzolans' after the volcanic additives used by the Romans, these materials
are widely found in the lime mortars used in old buildings and monuments.
Where conservation work is required, new mortars ought to match these
mortars, not only to ensure continuity with the past, but also to ensure
that the new work is both visually and physically compatible with the
old. It is therefore important that we know more about the performance
of these additives.
A simple everyday
definition of 'pozzolan' could be 'a finely powdered material which
can be added to lime mortar (or to Portland cement mortar) to increase
durability and, in the case of lime mortars, to provide a positive set'.
A more formal definition is given by ASTM(1) C618 as 'a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which, in itself,
possesses little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely
divided form in the presence of moisture, react chemically with calcium
hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious
lime mortars harden by drying and carbonation, that is by the conversion
of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) to calcium carbonate by reaction
with atmospheric carbon dioxide. In hydraulic mortars this hardening
is supplemented by a more positive set brought about by chemical reactions
between calcium hydroxide and reactive silicates and aluminates in the
presence of water. In natural hydraulic limes the reactive silicates
and aluminates are supplied by clay minerals in the limestone. Where
a hydraulic set is required in a lime mortar and these minerals are
not naturally present, or are not present in sufficient quantities,
they can be added in the form of pozzolans.(2)
The addition of pozzolan
to any lime mortar (hydraulic or non-hydraulic) will modify its characteristics.
Pozzolanic materials can combine with uncarbonated lime (calcium hydroxide)
to form stable compounds, thus reducing the risk of early leaching or
frost damage and increasing the potential durability of the mortar.
Depending on the type of pozzolan chosen, the density and compressive
strength of the mortar may be increased and porosity reduced. In general,
the softer pozzolanic materials (such as brick dust from clay bricks
fired at less than 950°C) will produce more permeable and flexible mortars,
whilst the hard-burned materials, such as PFA, will tend to produce
a harder mortar, closer in its characteristics to cement.
In the past it has
been argued that early setting and increased durability in lime mortars
can be obtained by the addition of a small quantity of cement, but experience
has shown that cement-gauged lime mortars are generally not durable
unless the relative proportions of cement to lime are around 1:1. These
proportions produce a mortar which is too hard and brittle for most
conservation situations and which may introduce soluble sulphates into
fragile stone or brickwork. Similar problems may also occur with some
of the modern highly fired hydraulic limes.
practice of modifying lime mortars by the addition of materials containing
reactive silicates and aluminates was known to Roman builders, who utilised
volcanic deposits from Pozzuoli near Naples, as well as crushed clay
tiles. The extent to which this practice was continued throughout the
middle ages is not clear, but interest in the use of both hydraulic
limes and pozzolans had revived by the late 18th century, with the start
of a long period of investigation and debate involving some of the great
engineers, such as Vicat, Treussart and Smeaton.
involved the combined firing of suitable clay minerals with limestone
as well as the addition of pozzolanic materials to various types of
lime mortars and led, eventually, to the development of artificial hydraulic
limes. It appears to have become generally accepted that, for engineering
works, combined firing of the required materials could produce a more
durable mortar than the separate addition of pozzolans after firing.
To this end two methods of production, of what became known as artificial
hydraulic limes, were developed. One method involved grinding limestone
or chalk with clay before firing, to simulate the intimate mixture found
in natural hydraulic limestones. An alternative method, involving the
mixing of slaked high calcium lime with clay, drying and re-calcining
the material, led eventually to the production of Portland cement.
At the same time,
understanding was growing of the use of pozzolans for addition to mortars
of non-hydraulic or hydraulic lime. Smeaton, particularly, was instrumental
in developing specifications incorporating natural pozzolans with natural
hydraulic lime to achieve exceptionally durable mortars for marine,
and other engineering works.
The continuing search
for a faster setting and more durable mortar led eventually to the development
of modern cements and, for most of the 20th century, the increasing
use of Portland cement has displaced the use of pure limes, hydraulic
limes and pozzolans. With the current realisation that lime mortars
of various types and properties do have a place in the construction
industry, both for the conservation of traditional masonry or brickwork
and for the construction of certain types of new building, attention
is again being focused on the potential performance of non-hydraulic
and hydraulic lime mortars, and on the use of pozzolans to modify these
mortars. The use of pozzolans in lime mortars in current practice is
based on historic practice and on pragmatic experience, supported by
some preliminary scientific investigations, such as the work carried
out by English Heritage and BRE under the Smeaton Project.(3)
Published works on the effects of pozzolans on Portland cement concrete
and mortar also contain useful information.
AND TYPES OF POZZOLANIC MATERIAL
materials can be divided into the categories listed below, according
to their origin and properties.
Natural, very finely
divided, highly reactive materials of volcanic origin. These materials
were formed from a combination of minerals, (mainly consisting of silica
and alumina with smaller and variable quantities of other minerals containing
calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, and sodium), ejected from volcanoes
in the form of very finely divided vitreous material. Well known sources
include puozzolana from Puozzoli in Italy, volvic pozzolan from South-east
France, trass from the Rhinelands and tuff from the Aegean islands.
Crushed pumice was also used.
These natural pozzolans
were widely used in 19th century engineering works in conjunction with
natural hydraulic limes. They were recognised as being particularly
appropriate for marine engineering and other works in difficult wet
conditions, and for civil engineering works generally. Imported Italian
puozzolana and Rhineland trass are still available.
Local deposits of
volcanic pozzolan are thought to have been utilised in the UK on a small
scale: in the late 19th century a source was reported from 'near Edinburgh'.(4)
Other vitreous volcanic material, such as basalt, may have mild pozzolanic
properties if very finely ground.
calcined clay products in various forms. Pozzolanic additives derived
from lightly fired and finely crushed clay products, such as clay tile
or brick, were used by the Romans and combinations of non-hydraulic
lime and low temperature brick dusts have been used over a long period
of time. Similar specifications are successfully employed in modern
conservation practice where additional set and durability are required
without seriously reducing the permeability and flexibility of the mortar.
Historically such mixes were not thought to be as effective as hydraulic
limes and volcanic pozzolans in producing a fast setting and durable
mortar for use in continuously saturated conditions.
Bodies such as English
Heritage have promoted the use, particularly for conservation work,
of low temperature clay pozzolans in non-hydraulic mortars and research
is ongoing. Current advice is that the material should be derived from
clay fired at temperatures below 950°C, and ground to a range of particle
sizes between 38 and 600 microns.(5) Modern sources of potentially suitable material include reject
bricks and tiles from traditional producers, which can be crushed in
a roller pan mill. Some manufacturers also produce low temperature purpose-made
dusts for sale as pozzolans.(6)
Clay or kaolin
products specifically manufactured as pozzolans.(7) These are produced primarily for use with Portland cement and all currently
available technical and performance data relates to their use in that
context. These materials are highly reactive and combine readily with
calcium hydroxide to form calcium silicate hydrates and calcium alumino-silicate
hydrates. Their effect on the performance and characteristics of lime
mortars is not currently known but, subject to adequate investigation
and trials, it is possible that their use could be extended into this
Also falling into
the category of fired clays is the material known as HTI (high temperature
insulation) powder. This was widely specified in the 1980s but has now
largely been superseded by lower temperature materials which are thought
to be more consistent in their performance.
Mineral slag, etc. Furnace slag is a vitrified material, produced as a by-product of processes
such as smelting, and requires grinding to convert it to a reactive
material. It contains silica, alumina, lime and other minerals in various
proportions and, in modern practice, is more commonly used as an additive
in Portland cement concretes. Historically, forge scale and iron-rich
slag, known as minion, were also used.
Ashes of organic
origin. Coal cinders generally have an acceptable balance of silica
and alumina, and have been used historically as a pozzolanic additive,
but their physical structure tends to weaken the mortar and to absorb
excessive water. Coal ash is widely used, in the form of PFA (pulverised
fuel ash) as an additive to cementitious mortars and in lime-based grouts.
The use of coal-based products carries a risk of sulphate contamination
and the materials should always be selected from low sulphate coals.
The residue of fuels from lime burning, whether from coal-, coke-, or
wood-fired kilns, known as lime-ash, is well known historically as a
pozzolan and is still available.(8) Other vegetable ashes, such as rice husk ash, are used as pozzolans
in other parts of the world. Bone ash is also known to have been used.
sands and crushed rock products. Certain types of sand, such as
argillaceous (clayey) sands containing high proportions of schist, basalt,
feldspar and mica, can have mildly pozzolanic properties. Whilst these
sands are not generally specified for modern lime-based mortars it may
be useful to recognise that, historically, in certain localities, their
use could have influenced the nature of local lime mortars.
Finely crushed rock
products from sources containing an appropriate balance of minerals
may also produce a mild pozzolanic effect.
were often produced using techniques which brought the sand into contact
with hot slaking lime, and it is possible that this heat would have
encouraged any potential for a mild pozzolanic reaction between sand
OF POZZOLANIC MORTARS
in fat (non-hydraulic) lime mixes, the proportions of natural volcanic
pozzolan to lime and sand were often in the region of one part of lime
powder (or two parts of lime putty) to one of sand and one of pozzolan;
or one part of lime powder (two parts of lime putty) to up to two-and-a-half
of pozzolan or trass, without the addition of sand. For use with natural
hydraulic limes the relative proportions of pozzolan were reduced. Brick
dust is widely found, in varying proportions, in old lime mortars. Lime-ash
is known to have been used, in combination with sand and gypsum, for
floors, but the extent of its use as a pozzolanic additive in mortars
is not known. Where there is a need to closely match historic materials
an analysis of the original mortar should be commissioned.
The properties and
behaviour of pozzolans should always be verified by trial samples before
use. The choice of type and quantity of pozzolan to be used with a modern
lime mortar will be determined partly by performance requirements and
conditions of use, and partly by availability of materials and (especially
in the case of modern manufactured pozzolans) of information and experience.
Modern specifications tend to utilise soft-fired clay products for increased
durability of non-hydraulic lime mortars, and pulverised fuel ash for
structural grouts. Recently, the manufactured kaolin pozzolans have
also been employed in hydraulic lime mortars. Although imported natural
pozzolans and lime-ash (in the form of residue from coal-fired lime
kilns) are available they are now rarely specified.
Where a soft permeable
mortar is required to have increased frost resistance or durability
in exposed locations, a gauging of brick dust is often specified. Proportions
of the mix might be in the region of one part of lime putty to two or
three parts sand, with the addition of up to one of fine brick dust.
Fine, freshly ground brick dust is thought to be the most reactive as
it has the maximum surface area due to the larger number of particles
per weight. (The Smeaton Project found that brick dust with a range
of particle sizes between 38 and 600 microns was the most successful,
and that the smaller particles, probably those less than 75 microns,
tended to be pozzolanic, whilst those greater than 300 microns tended
to act as porous particulates.)
For severe exposure
or other demanding situations, where a lime mortar may remain permanently
wet or be subject to repeated cycles of wetting, drying and freezing,
a natural hydraulic lime mortar or a more strongly pozzolanic mortar
might be specified. In some locations, for example in marine environments,
it may be appropriate to use a natural hydraulic lime mortar with a
gauging of pozzolan.
Where pozzolanic materials
are to be added to a non-hydraulic mortar this is done at the 'knocking
up' stage, shortly before use. Brick dust should be wetted and thoroughly
beaten into the mix. The gauged mortar can normally be knocked up again
if not used immediately, but mixes not used within 24 hours should be
discarded. The more hydraulic the mix the shorter will be the available
working time before set becomes established.
Techniques for using
pozzolanic mortars are similar to those normally recommended for other
lime mortars. All the elements of good practice, such as thorough preparation
of materials, adequate and appropriate preparation of backgrounds (including
cleaning, dampening down to control suction and, where appropriate,
making good and keying of surfaces), use of small volumes of mortar,
slow curing and protection from sun, wind, rain and frost for new mortars,
are all important. The use of pozzolans should never be regarded as
a substitute for appropriate and careful site practice.
with hydraulic lime, or even with Portland cement, is sometimes specified
in order to modify the properties of non-hydraulic lime mortars. The
pros and cons of these mixtures are outside the scope of this discussion,
and strictly speaking neither material can be described as a pozzolan.
It is generally agreed that proportions of the gauging should be as
close as possible to those of the basic lime, and should be very thoroughly
mixed in to achieve a uniform distribution throughout the mortar. Experience
in Scotland over recent years has shown that mortars in which the total
lime content comprises between 50 per cent and 75 per cent non-hydraulic
lime, with between 50 per cent and 25 per cent moderately or eminently
hydraulic lime, can successfully be used in situations of severe exposure,
provided all the elements of good site practice are in place.
of pozzolans in Portland cement mortars and concretes is better understood
than is their use in lime mortars. Recent work by Stafford Holmes and
Michael Wingate has provided valuable information on the extent of
their use historically.(9) What is now required is a programme of testing
and performance monitoring for the various clay-based and proprietary
pozzolans available on the market.
(1) American Society for the Testing of Materials
According to Eckel, in the 1920s American publication Cements, Lime
and Plaster, natural pozzolans contain between 42 and 66 per cent silica
and between 15 and 17 per cent alumina.
The Smeaton Project, a joint research programme of English Heritage,
ICCROM, Bournemouth University and the BRE, investigating the development
of lime mortar formulations for use in historic buildings
George Burnell, Rudimentary Treatise on Limes, Cements, Mortars, Concretes, Mastics, Plastering, etc, John
Weale, London, 1850
The Smeaton Project
(6) HR Supra, also known as Moler, a purpose made brick dust fired at 750°C,
is available from Hepworth Refactories Ltd
MetaStar pozzolanic materials, manufactured by English China Clay International,
are available from:
- Bryn Gilby (01565 659040)
- The Cornish Lime Company (01208 79779)
- Masons Mortar (0131 555 5053)
(8) Lime-ash from coal-fired lime kilns is available from:
- The Lime Centre (01962 713636)
- Masons Mortar (0131 555 5053)
(9) Stafford Holmes and Michael Wingate, Building with Lime, Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1977